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Finding The 100 MPG Carburetor Or What is 100% MPG?
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dot  The graphic below is courtesy of [].  Go to that page for detailed information on all of the losses.
dot  A Free MPG form for tabulating your car's Miles Per Gallon.
dot  A sidebar on Reliability.

     This calculation is only a "What if" because the graphic only shows the "losses".  If it showed the "TOTAL Work Output" at the wheels it could used for a graphic of the Conservation of Energy.
     Assuming the "TOTAL Work Output" = 5.8 % , then let's assume that that equals 20 MPG and that 1 gallon of gas costs $3/Gal. and where the Higher Heating Value [HHV] of 1 US gallon of gasoline =  125,000 Btu/gallon.
      [ 20 MPG out/ 5.8 % out  = 3.448 mpg for each 1.0% point of Total Work Output.  And that 1.0% of $3 = $0.03 .  In other words:  1.0% of the Totals = 3.448 mpg and = $0.03]
    Then filling in the blue table from left to right:

[1.]  Total Input:
    Standby/Idle Losses
 - 17.2%
- .516
    Accessories  Losses
 -  2.2%
    Engine Losses:
 - 62.4%
Driveline In:
    Driveline Losses: 
 -  5.6%
    Drag Losses: 
 -  2.6%
    Rolling Losses:
 -  4.2%
  -$ .372
[2.]  TOTAL LOSSES:   
[3.] TOTAL Work Output -5.8%
20 MPG
$ .174
  Line [3.] results are from subtracting Line [2.] from input values on Line [1.].
If "TOTAL Work Output" = 5.8%  = 20 MPG , the cost of the fuel converted to Output is: $ .174

      Again, this says that a gallon of gas in a "20 mpg" car typically expends 94.2% which is equivalent to: 324.8 mpg and $2.82 of $3.00/gal. to "losses".  This doesn't sound very good but consider that:

      If the 1000° F exhaust gases were used for auxiliary steam engine propulsion with the same losses, what would be the resulting MPG?
    Before you think you are going to get something for nothing, you should consider the process of "Diminishing Returns".  In this example this says that if you get auxiliary steam power out, it will reduce the fuel required to power the car from point A to B; therefore, the hot exhaust gasses will be less and the auxiliary steam power available will be less.  Here's a patented example of current steam power: ; or search.  But simpler methods might be available now.

      Figure to the right shows at 2100 rpm (about 42 mph) the temp = 325º C  =  617 º F
ex Temps

A possible substitute for gasoline is Brown's Gas (HHO Hydrogen)or used as a blended mixture with gasoline for internal combustion engines.  (stoichiometric equation for HHO or blend of HHO and gasoline might be available. (On 5/13/10 this stoichiometric search yielded a gasoline stoic eq.  and also a H2 equation but not an HHO equation. See Equation 3.9 and following in this free, pretty through, article: HHO FUELED ENGINE by FRUMOSUN  )
Video Link of Genepax's Water Powered Car from Reuters. Accessed June 15, 2008  [ I think they use microwaves to split H2O b/c they say they don't use a cataylist which is typical for a HHO cell generator.]
Brown's Gas ; ;
 List: ;
[3.]    The Electrolysis of Water ;  chemical equations with explanation.
[4.]    Sodium bicarbonate  ; as the catalyst;  "is the chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3."

[5.]     HHO Quantity: HHO-FUELED-ENGINE  If one wanted to run a 4 L engine at idle without any other fuel:  Say a 4L, 4 cycle, 1 cylinder engine has 1 intake strokes per 2 revolutions so you would only need 2 liters /rev but at 600 rev/min (idle speed) = 1200 liters/min.  For a 2 Liter engine = 600 Liters/min.  Since the Higher Heating Value of H2 is almost 3 times that of gasoline perhaps a 4L engine would only need 1200/3= 400 Liters/min. to idle and for a 2L perhaps 600/3= 200 L/minute to idle.
[6.]     "The burning of conventional fuels such as petrol (gasoline), wood, and coal converts the fuel into substances with less energy (see enthalpy of formation).  Energy is released.   In the case of most fossil fuels, combustion can be represented with the following chemical equation:
 CH4 + 2 O2 ? 2 H2O + CO2     Water is a waste product."

     "Spontaneous chemical processes do not create energy, they release it by converting unstable bonds into more stable bonds and/or by increasing entropy.  Water is such an abundant chemical compound in part because it has very stable bonds that resist most reactions.  In order for water to participate in a reaction that produces energy, high energy compounds must be added to carry the current and make H2O bonds easier to break.  For example, it is possible to generate the combustible fuel hydrogen by adding sodium bicarbonate [NaHCO3.] to water.   See [3.] above.

[7.]     "As already noted, water, particularly when ions are added (salt water or acidic water) can be electrolyzed (subject to electrolysis). When driven by an external source of voltage, H+ ions flow to the cathode to combine with electrons to produce hydrogen gas in a reduction reaction. Likewise, OH- ions flow to the anode to release electrons and an H+ ion to produce oxygen gas in an oxidation reaction.
      In molten sodium chloride, when a current is passed through the salt the anode oxidizes chlorine ions (Cl-), which release electrons to the anode. Likewise the cathode reduces sodium metal (Na+), which accept electrons from the cathode and deposits on the cathode as sodium metal. valence shell.  Table Salt as the catalyst. ...
      NaCl dissolved in water can also be electrolyzed. The anode oxidixes chlorine ions (Cl-), and Cl2 gas is still produced. However, instead of sodium metal, aqueous sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is produced, which stays dissolved in the water. Some of the water will also be electrolyzed, producing H2 gas.  The oxygen is found in the hydroxide ion which combines with the sodium ions to make the sodium hydroxide.

The net equation is: 2 H2O (l) + 2 NaCl (aq) --> Cl2(g/aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) + H2 (g)"   [ ]
          (l) = liquid ; (aq) = aquious ? ;  (g/aq) = gas/aq? ;  (g) = gas

      What no one is saying about HHO cells is whether they produce a hazardous waste in the cell that needs cleaning from time to time.  A potential waste could be hexavalent chromium.  Check this report on Cr VI chemistry in HHO cells.:   Adventures in Hydroxy Gas: Reducing Hexavalent Chromium in Waste Water UPDATED: 4 Aug 08, I had a viewer on YouTube leave me a comment about the dangers of Hexavalent Chromium in the waste water of my Hydroxy experiments. This made me concerned about what it was I was doing, but the warning only told me to watch the movie "Erin Brokovich" to see how bad it was. Oh, and don't throw away the water.

Search For:  [] "Browns gas Hydroxyl HHO Generator" [] (opens new window) (40 hits on 9/22/09) (66,700 hits in 5/25/15)

  First pass calculation on quantity of gas required for running 100% HHO 0.0% gasoline.  EngineFuel-saltwater.html

4/8/10  Some images captured while browsing:
Hydrogen Technology Applications, Inc. (HTA) has recently completed an initial round of testing with a Ford F250 (diesel) and on-board system producing Aquygen gas. HTA was able to show about a 21% increase in fuel economy for these initial tests. Results from this testing can be seen at this link. Stanley Meyer YouTube videos
  "LA to NY would use 22 gal. of water" (...about 126 miles per gallon of water.  On this reasoning one of those 1 qt. mason jars should last 30 miles if it provided 100% of the fuel of the vehicle.  Since they only supply about 20-25% "boost" the 1 qt. jar should last about 150 miles.  You would expect to fill up the jar about twice per tank of gasoline.  )
Browns Gas <<  Todd Knudtson: HYDROXY  [ ] Quotes Eric Kreig's "Brown's Gas" skeptical discussion (Long critical rant trying to get his mind around these unique properties of water.)

<<  George Wiseman,  (Website is typical of book sellers - teases and gives conflicting messages.)

  John Kanzius' Water Fuel Cell - Video - Online ...

Finding The 100 MPG Carburetor Or What is 100% MPG?  The answer is dependent upon the "gallon" you are referring to.
  Designed - ©  12/22/07 ; 28 Kb . .

Italic magenta edits by ed.

Reliability Sidebar:

On 7/16/2010, c & n wrote by 
You told me that before you got your Cadillac, you did some research on maintenance records and durability of cars.  What did you come up with.  I think it was a Honda that gave you the best results.  Or was it a Nissan?  Or something else?  I am thinking about getting a car for S. to go to school with, as I may have a part-time job starting in the fall.  Or I may let her have the 2002 Pontiac Gran Prix, and I'll get something used.
Dear C.
    The most reliable cars for the last 10-15+ years have been the Toyota Camry(larger) or
Corolla(smaller) and the Honda Accord(larger) or Civic(smaller).   Followed by some models of Nissan.  The web site where I got that info has gone off of the internet.  Here's a link to an archived copy  [ ] or [ ] .  I don't recall that Consumer's Report or anybody else had an actual reliability factor like a calculated Average Monthly Repair Cost for ownership like did.  Given the fact that the Japanese cars generally have less repairs but are more costly, the only nagging question is how much do the repairs average over a year or 5 years?
      I have been tracking my cars: 
1. `72 Ford LTD 400 ci, automatic (owned from 1990-1995-averaged repair costs: $60.56/mo.), (Bought for $200.  102K mi to 160K mi.(58k)) (broke transmission)
2. `88 Chev Celebrity 2.8L, 5 speed. (owned from 1995-2000 - averaged repair cost: $64.65/mo.)  (Bought for $1995.  72K mi to 118K mi.(46k)) (cracked block)
3. `84 Dodge Aries 2.2L, 4 cyl., auto. (owned from 2000 to 2004- averaged repair cost: $84/mo.)  (Bought for $2100?  64K mi to 91K mi.(27k)) (blown head gasket developed into cracked block)
4. `95 Cadillac Deville/Concours 4.6L Northstar, automatic. (owned from 2004 to present =74 mo. - averaged monthly repair cost: $95.26/mo) (Bought for $7200.  88K mi to 139K mi.(51k) (A/C repaired.) ( gave away 8/13 (couldn't sell) b/c bought `98.)
5. `98 Cadillac Deville  4.6L Northstar, automatic.  (owned from 6/13 to present (less than 1 year) ( 59K to 64K overheated 400 miles up I75, became blown head gasket.)

    The averaged repair costs do not include purchase price, gas, license fees or insurance costs.  Some simple repairs I did myself.  I now use the cars program from this site to track the repairs. [ (It wants to connect to the web but I deny it permission.)].

    You can see that in all cases the monthly expenses were less than a used car payment.  And the 3 repairs needing most careful analysis are: engine replace, transmission replace, a/c repair.  These 3 are not necessary repairs if you are going to junk the car.  If you can amortize the repair over 2-4 years and could expect to get 3 to 5 years extra life out of the car then the repair would be cheaper than buying another used car.